German EXISTENTIALIST philosopher. Practiced in psychiatry and then moved via psychology to philosophy, finally accepting a professorship at Heidelberg in 1921. He was ousted from his post during the Nazi era but returned after the war. In Nietzsche and Christianity (1946), The Perennial Scope of Theology (1948), and Myth and Christianity (1954), Jaspers sees religious answers emerging from METAPHYSICAL descriptions of BEING. He rejects THEISM, PANTHEISM, REVEALED RELIGION, and ATHEISM as mere ciphers or symbols which should not be taken literally, and argues that one should look to PHENOMENOLOGICAL descriptions of the fringes of inward and outer experiences for understanding.

Concise dictionary of Religion. 2012.

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